Table of Contents

Installing oVirt as a standalone Engine with remote databases

Standalone Engine installation is manual and customizable. You must install a Enterprise Linux machine, then run the configuration script (engine-setup) and provide information about how you want to configure the oVirt Engine. Add hosts and storage after the Engine is running. At least two hosts are required for virtual machine high availability.

To install the Engine with a remote Engine database, manually create the database on the remote machine before running engine-setup. To install the Data Warehouse database on a remote machine, run the Data Warehouse configuration script (ovirt-engine-dwh-setup) on the remote machine. This script installs the Data Warehouse service and can create the Data Warehouse database automatically.

See the Planning and Prerequisites Guide for information on environment options and recommended configuration.

Table 1. oVirt Key Components
Component Name Description

oVirt Engine

A service that provides a graphical user interface and a REST API to manage the resources in the environment. The Engine is installed on a physical or virtual machine running Enterprise Linux.

Hosts

Enterprise Linux hosts (Enterprise Linux hosts) and oVirt Nodes (image-based hypervisors) are the two supported types of host. Hosts use Kernel-based Virtual Machine (KVM) technology and provide resources used to run virtual machines.

Shared Storage

A storage service is used to store the data associated with virtual machines.

Data Warehouse

A service that collects configuration information and statistical data from the Engine.

Standalone Engine Architecture

The oVirt Engine runs on a physical server, or a virtual machine hosted in a separate virtualization environment. A standalone Engine is easier to deploy and manage, but requires an additional physical server. The Engine is only highly available when managed externally with a product such as Red Hat’s High Availability Add-On.

The minimum setup for a standalone Engine environment includes:

  • One oVirt Engine machine. The Engine is typically deployed on a physical server. However, it can also be deployed on a virtual machine, as long as that virtual machine is hosted in a separate environment. The Engine must run on Enterprise Linux 8.

  • A minimum of two hosts for virtual machine high availability. You can use Enterprise Linux hosts or oVirt Nodes (oVirt Node). VDSM (the host agent) runs on all hosts to facilitate communication with the oVirt Engine.

  • One storage service, which can be hosted locally or on a remote server, depending on the storage type used. The storage service must be accessible to all hosts.

Standalone Engine oVirt Architecture
Figure 1. Standalone Engine oVirt Architecture

1. Installation Overview

Installing a standalone Engine environment with remote databases involves the following steps:

Keep the environment up to date. Since bug fixes for known issues are frequently released, use scheduled tasks to update the hosts and the Engine.

2. Requirements

2.1. oVirt Engine Requirements

2.1.1. Hardware Requirements

The minimum and recommended hardware requirements outlined here are based on a typical small to medium-sized installation. The exact requirements vary between deployments based on sizing and load.

The oVirt Engine runs on Enterprise Linux operating systems like CentOS Linux or Red Hat Enterprise Linux.

Table 2. oVirt Engine Hardware Requirements
Resource Minimum Recommended

CPU

A dual core x86_64 CPU.

A quad core x86_64 CPU or multiple dual core x86_64 CPUs.

Memory

4 GB of available system RAM if Data Warehouse is not installed and if memory is not being consumed by existing processes.

16 GB of system RAM.

Hard Disk

25 GB of locally accessible, writable disk space.

50 GB of locally accessible, writable disk space.

You can use the RHV Engine History Database Size Calculator to calculate the appropriate disk space for the Engine history database size.

Network Interface

1 Network Interface Card (NIC) with bandwidth of at least 1 Gbps.

1 Network Interface Card (NIC) with bandwidth of at least 1 Gbps.

2.1.2. Browser Requirements

The following browser versions and operating systems can be used to access the Administration Portal and the VM Portal.

Browser testing is divided into tiers:

  • Tier 1: Browser and operating system combinations that are fully tested.

  • Tier 2: Browser and operating system combinations that are partially tested, and are likely to work.

  • Tier 3: Browser and operating system combinations that are not tested, but may work.

Table 3. Browser Requirements
Support Tier Operating System Family Browser

Tier 1

Enterprise Linux

Mozilla Firefox Extended Support Release (ESR) version

Any

Most recent version of Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, or Microsoft Edge

Tier 2

Tier 3

Any

Earlier versions of Google Chrome or Mozilla Firefox

Any

Other browsers

2.1.3. Client Requirements

Virtual machine consoles can only be accessed using supported Remote Viewer (virt-viewer) clients on Enterprise Linux and Windows. To install virt-viewer, see Installing Supporting Components on Client Machines in the Virtual Machine Management Guide. Installing virt-viewer requires Administrator privileges.

You can access virtual machine consoles using the SPICE, VNC, or RDP (Windows only) protocols. You can install the QXLDOD graphical driver in the guest operating system to improve the functionality of SPICE. SPICE currently supports a maximum resolution of 2560x1600 pixels.

Client Operating System SPICE Support

Supported QXLDOD drivers are available on Enterprise Linux 7.2 and later, and Windows 10.

SPICE may work with Windows 8 or 8.1 using QXLDOD drivers, but it is neither certified nor tested.

2.1.4. Operating System Requirements

The oVirt Engine must be installed on a base installation of Enterprise Linux 8 that has been updated to the latest minor release.

Do not install any additional packages after the base installation, as they may cause dependency issues when attempting to install the packages required by the Engine.

Do not enable additional repositories other than those required for the Engine installation.

2.2. Host Requirements

2.2.1. CPU Requirements

All CPUs must have support for the Intel® 64 or AMD64 CPU extensions, and the AMD-V™ or Intel VT® hardware virtualization extensions enabled. Support for the No eXecute flag (NX) is also required.

The following CPU models are supported:

  • AMD

    • Opteron G4

    • Opteron G5

    • EPYC

  • Intel

    • Nehalem

    • Westmere

    • SandyBridge

    • IvyBridge

    • Haswell

    • Broadwell

    • Skylake Client

    • Skylake Server

    • Cascadelake Server

  • IBM

    • POWER8

    • POWER9

For each CPU model with security updates, the CPU Type lists a basic type and a secure type. For example:

  • Intel Cascadelake Server Family

  • Secure Intel Cascadelake Server Family

The Secure CPU type contains the latest updates. For details, see BZ#1731395

Checking if a Processor Supports the Required Flags

You must enable virtualization in the BIOS. Power off and reboot the host after this change to ensure that the change is applied.

  1. At the Enterprise Linux or oVirt Node boot screen, press any key and select the Boot or Boot with serial console entry from the list.

  2. Press Tab to edit the kernel parameters for the selected option.

  3. Ensure there is a space after the last kernel parameter listed, and append the parameter rescue.

  4. Press Enter to boot into rescue mode.

  5. At the prompt, determine that your processor has the required extensions and that they are enabled by running this command:

    # grep -E 'svm|vmx' /proc/cpuinfo | grep nx

If any output is shown, the processor is hardware virtualization capable. If no output is shown, your processor may still support hardware virtualization; in some circumstances manufacturers disable the virtualization extensions in the BIOS. If you believe this to be the case, consult the system’s BIOS and the motherboard manual provided by the manufacturer.

2.2.2. Memory Requirements

The minimum required RAM is 2 GB. The maximum supported RAM per VM in oVirt Node is 4 TB.

However, the amount of RAM required varies depending on guest operating system requirements, guest application requirements, and guest memory activity and usage. KVM can also overcommit physical RAM for virtualized guests, allowing you to provision guests with RAM requirements greater than what is physically present, on the assumption that the guests are not all working concurrently at peak load. KVM does this by only allocating RAM for guests as required and shifting underutilized guests into swap.

2.2.3. Storage Requirements

Hosts require storage to store configuration, logs, kernel dumps, and for use as swap space. Storage can be local or network-based. oVirt Node (oVirt Node) can boot with one, some, or all of its default allocations in network storage. Booting from network storage can result in a freeze if there is a network disconnect. Adding a drop-in multipath configuration file can help address losses in network connectivity. If oVirt Node boots from SAN storage and loses connectivity, the files become read-only until network connectivity restores. Using network storage might result in a performance downgrade.

The minimum storage requirements of oVirt Node are documented in this section. The storage requirements for Enterprise Linux hosts vary based on the amount of disk space used by their existing configuration but are expected to be greater than those of oVirt Node.

The minimum storage requirements for host installation are listed below. However, use the default allocations, which use more storage space.

  • / (root) - 6 GB

  • /home - 1 GB

  • /tmp - 1 GB

  • /boot - 1 GB

  • /var - 15 GB

  • /var/crash - 10 GB

  • /var/log - 8 GB

  • /var/log/audit - 2 GB

  • swap - 1 GB (for the recommended swap size, see https://access.redhat.com/solutions/15244)

  • Anaconda reserves 20% of the thin pool size within the volume group for future metadata expansion. This is to prevent an out-of-the-box configuration from running out of space under normal usage conditions. Overprovisioning of thin pools during installation is also not supported.

  • Minimum Total - 64 GiB

If you are also installing the Engine Appliance for self-hosted engine installation, /var/tmp must be at least 5 GB.

If you plan to use memory overcommitment, add enough swap space to provide virtual memory for all of virtual machines. See Memory Optimization.

2.2.4. PCI Device Requirements

Hosts must have at least one network interface with a minimum bandwidth of 1 Gbps. Each host should have two network interfaces, with one dedicated to supporting network-intensive activities, such as virtual machine migration. The performance of such operations is limited by the bandwidth available.

For information about how to use PCI Express and conventional PCI devices with Intel Q35-based virtual machines, see Using PCI Express and Conventional PCI Devices with the Q35 Virtual Machine.

2.2.5. Device Assignment Requirements

If you plan to implement device assignment and PCI passthrough so that a virtual machine can use a specific PCIe device from a host, ensure the following requirements are met:

  • CPU must support IOMMU (for example, VT-d or AMD-Vi). IBM POWER8 supports IOMMU by default.

  • Firmware must support IOMMU.

  • CPU root ports used must support ACS or ACS-equivalent capability.

  • PCIe devices must support ACS or ACS-equivalent capability.

  • All PCIe switches and bridges between the PCIe device and the root port should support ACS. For example, if a switch does not support ACS, all devices behind that switch share the same IOMMU group, and can only be assigned to the same virtual machine.

  • For GPU support, Enterprise Linux 8 supports PCI device assignment of PCIe-based NVIDIA K-Series Quadro (model 2000 series or higher), GRID, and Tesla as non-VGA graphics devices. Currently up to two GPUs may be attached to a virtual machine in addition to one of the standard, emulated VGA interfaces. The emulated VGA is used for pre-boot and installation and the NVIDIA GPU takes over when the NVIDIA graphics drivers are loaded. Note that the NVIDIA Quadro 2000 is not supported, nor is the Quadro K420 card.

Check vendor specification and datasheets to confirm that your hardware meets these requirements. The lspci -v command can be used to print information for PCI devices already installed on a system.

2.2.6. vGPU Requirements

A host must meet the following requirements in order for virtual machines on that host to use a vGPU:

  • vGPU-compatible GPU

  • GPU-enabled host kernel

  • Installed GPU with correct drivers

  • Predefined mdev_type set to correspond with one of the mdev types supported by the device

  • vGPU-capable drivers installed on each host in the cluster

  • vGPU-supported virtual machine operating system with vGPU drivers installed

2.3. Networking requirements

2.3.1. General requirements

oVirt requires IPv6 to remain enabled on the physical or virtual machine running the Engine. Do not disable IPv6 on the Engine machine, even if your systems do not use it.

2.3.2. Firewall Requirements for DNS, NTP, and IPMI Fencing

The firewall requirements for all of the following topics are special cases that require individual consideration.

DNS and NTP

oVirt does not create a DNS or NTP server, so the firewall does not need to have open ports for incoming traffic.

By default, Enterprise Linux allows outbound traffic to DNS and NTP on any destination address. If you disable outgoing traffic, define exceptions for requests that are sent to DNS and NTP servers.

  • The oVirt Engine and all hosts (oVirt Node and Enterprise Linux host) must have a fully qualified domain name and full, perfectly-aligned forward and reverse name resolution.

  • Running a DNS service as a virtual machine in the oVirt environment is not supported. All DNS services the oVirt environment uses must be hosted outside of the environment.

  • Use DNS instead of the /etc/hosts file for name resolution. Using a hosts file typically requires more work and has a greater chance for errors.

IPMI and Other Fencing Mechanisms (optional)

For IPMI (Intelligent Platform Management Interface) and other fencing mechanisms, the firewall does not need to have open ports for incoming traffic.

By default, Enterprise Linux allows outbound IPMI traffic to ports on any destination address. If you disable outgoing traffic, make exceptions for requests being sent to your IPMI or fencing servers.

Each oVirt Node and Enterprise Linux host in the cluster must be able to connect to the fencing devices of all other hosts in the cluster. If the cluster hosts are experiencing an error (network error, storage error…​) and cannot function as hosts, they must be able to connect to other hosts in the data center.

The specific port number depends on the type of the fence agent you are using and how it is configured.

The firewall requirement tables in the following sections do not represent this option.

2.3.3. oVirt Engine Firewall Requirements

The oVirt Engine requires that a number of ports be opened to allow network traffic through the system’s firewall.

The engine-setup script can configure the firewall automatically.

The firewall configuration documented here assumes a default configuration.

A diagram of these firewall requirements is available at https://access.redhat.com/articles/3932211. You can use the IDs in the table to look up connections in the diagram.

Table 4. oVirt Engine Firewall Requirements
ID Port(s) Protocol Source Destination Purpose Encrypted by default

M1

-

ICMP

oVirt Nodes

Enterprise Linux hosts

oVirt Engine

Optional.

May help in diagnosis.

No

M2

22

TCP

System(s) used for maintenance of the Engine including backend configuration, and software upgrades.

oVirt Engine

Secure Shell (SSH) access.

Optional.

Yes

M3

2222

TCP

Clients accessing virtual machine serial consoles.

oVirt Engine

Secure Shell (SSH) access to enable connection to virtual machine serial consoles.

Yes

M4

80, 443

TCP

Administration Portal clients

VM Portal clients

oVirt Nodes

Enterprise Linux hosts

REST API clients

oVirt Engine

Provides HTTP (port 80, not encrypted) and HTTPS (port 443, encrypted) access to the Engine. HTTP redirects connections to HTTPS.

Yes

M5

6100

TCP

Administration Portal clients

VM Portal clients

oVirt Engine

Provides websocket proxy access for a web-based console client, noVNC, when the websocket proxy is running on the Engine.

No

M6

7410

UDP

oVirt Nodes

Enterprise Linux hosts

oVirt Engine

If Kdump is enabled on the hosts, open this port for the fence_kdump listener on the Engine. See fence_kdump Advanced Configuration. fence_kdump doesn’t provide a way to encrypt the connection. However, you can manually configure this port to block access from hosts that are not eligible.

No

M7

54323

TCP

Administration Portal clients

oVirt Engine (ImageIO Proxy server)

Required for communication with the ImageIO Proxy (ovirt-imageio-proxy).

Yes

M8

6442

TCP

oVirt Nodes

Enterprise Linux hosts

Open Virtual Network (OVN) southbound database

Connect to Open Virtual Network (OVN) database

Yes

M9

9696

TCP

Clients of external network provider for OVN

External network provider for OVN

OpenStack Networking API

Yes, with configuration generated by engine-setup.

M10

35357

TCP

Clients of external network provider for OVN

External network provider for OVN

OpenStack Identity API

Yes, with configuration generated by engine-setup.

M11

53

TCP, UDP

oVirt Engine

DNS Server

DNS lookup requests from ports above 1023 to port 53, and responses. Open by default.

No

M12

123

UDP

oVirt Engine

NTP Server

NTP requests from ports above 1023 to port 123, and responses. Open by default.

No

  • A port for the OVN northbound database (6641) is not listed because, in the default configuration, the only client for the OVN northbound database (6641) is ovirt-provider-ovn. Because they both run on the same host, their communication is not visible to the network.

  • By default, Enterprise Linux allows outbound traffic to DNS and NTP on any destination address. If you disable outgoing traffic, make exceptions for the Engine to send requests to DNS and NTP servers. Other nodes may also require DNS and NTP. In that case, consult the requirements for those nodes and configure the firewall accordingly.

2.3.4. Host Firewall Requirements

Enterprise Linux hosts and oVirt Nodes (oVirt Node) require a number of ports to be opened to allow network traffic through the system’s firewall. The firewall rules are automatically configured by default when adding a new host to the Engine, overwriting any pre-existing firewall configuration.

To disable automatic firewall configuration when adding a new host, clear the Automatically configure host firewall check box under Advanced Parameters.

To customize the host firewall rules, see https://access.redhat.com/solutions/2772331.

A diagram of these firewall requirements is available at https://access.redhat.com/articles/3932211. You can use the IDs in the table to look up connections in the diagram.

Table 5. Virtualization Host Firewall Requirements
ID Port(s) Protocol Source Destination Purpose Encrypted by default

H1

22

TCP

oVirt Engine

oVirt Nodes

Enterprise Linux hosts

Secure Shell (SSH) access.

Optional.

Yes

H2

2223

TCP

oVirt Engine

oVirt Nodes

Enterprise Linux hosts

Secure Shell (SSH) access to enable connection to virtual machine serial consoles.

Yes

H3

161

UDP

oVirt Nodes

Enterprise Linux hosts

oVirt Engine

Simple network management protocol (SNMP). Only required if you want Simple Network Management Protocol traps sent from the host to one or more external SNMP managers.

Optional.

No

H4

111

TCP

NFS storage server

oVirt Nodes

Enterprise Linux hosts

NFS connections.

Optional.

No

H5

5900 - 6923

TCP

Administration Portal clients

VM Portal clients

oVirt Nodes

Enterprise Linux hosts

Remote guest console access via VNC and SPICE. These ports must be open to facilitate client access to virtual machines.

Yes (optional)

H6

5989

TCP, UDP

Common Information Model Object Manager (CIMOM)

oVirt Nodes

Enterprise Linux hosts

Used by Common Information Model Object Managers (CIMOM) to monitor virtual machines running on the host. Only required if you want to use a CIMOM to monitor the virtual machines in your virtualization environment.

Optional.

No

H7

9090

TCP

oVirt Engine

Client machines

oVirt Nodes

Enterprise Linux hosts

Required to access the Cockpit web interface, if installed.

Yes

H8

16514

TCP

oVirt Nodes

Enterprise Linux hosts

oVirt Nodes

Enterprise Linux hosts

Virtual machine migration using libvirt.

Yes

H9

49152 - 49215

TCP

oVirt Nodes

Enterprise Linux hosts

oVirt Nodes

Enterprise Linux hosts

Virtual machine migration and fencing using VDSM. These ports must be open to facilitate both automated and manual migration of virtual machines.

Yes. Depending on agent for fencing, migration is done through libvirt.

H10

54321

TCP

oVirt Engine

oVirt Nodes

Enterprise Linux hosts

oVirt Nodes

Enterprise Linux hosts

VDSM communications with the Engine and other virtualization hosts.

Yes

H11

54322

TCP

oVirt Engine (ImageIO Proxy server)

oVirt Nodes

Enterprise Linux hosts

Required for communication with the ImageIO daemon (ovirt-imageio-daemon).

Yes

H12

6081

UDP

oVirt Nodes

Enterprise Linux hosts

oVirt Nodes

Enterprise Linux hosts

Required, when Open Virtual Network (OVN) is used as a network provider, to allow OVN to create tunnels between hosts.

No

H13

53

TCP, UDP

oVirt Nodes

Enterprise Linux hosts

DNS Server

DNS lookup requests from ports above 1023 to port 53, and responses. This port is required and open by default.

No

By default, Enterprise Linux allows outbound traffic to DNS and NTP on any destination address. If you disable outgoing traffic, make exceptions for the oVirt Nodes

Enterprise Linux hosts to send requests to DNS and NTP servers. Other nodes may also require DNS and NTP. In that case, consult the requirements for those nodes and configure the firewall accordingly.

2.3.5. Database Server Firewall Requirements

oVirt supports the use of a remote database server for the Engine database (engine) and the Data Warehouse database (ovirt-engine-history). If you plan to use a remote database server, it must allow connections from the Engine and the Data Warehouse service (which can be separate from the Engine).

Similarly, if you plan to access a local or remote Data Warehouse database from an external system, the database must allow connections from that system.

Accessing the Engine database from external systems is not supported.

A diagram of these firewall requirements is available at https://access.redhat.com/articles/3932211. You can use the IDs in the table to look up connections in the diagram.

Table 6. Database Server Firewall Requirements
ID Port(s) Protocol Source Destination Purpose Encrypted by default

D1

5432

TCP, UDP

oVirt Engine

Data Warehouse service

Engine (engine) database server

Data Warehouse (ovirt-engine-history) database server

Default port for PostgreSQL database connections.

No, but can be enabled.

D2

5432

TCP, UDP

External systems

Data Warehouse (ovirt-engine-history) database server

Default port for PostgreSQL database connections.

Disabled by default. No, but can be enabled.

3. Installing the oVirt Engine

3.1. Installing the oVirt Engine Machine and the Remote Server

  1. The oVirt Engine must run on Enterprise Linux 8. For detailed installation instructions, see Performing a standard EL installation.

    This machine must meet the minimum Engine hardware requirements.

  2. Install a second Enterprise Linux machine to use for the databases. This machine will be referred to as the remote server.

3.2. Enabling the oVirt Engine Repositories

Ensure the correct repositories are enabled:

You can check which repositories are currently enabled by running dnf repolist.

  1. Enable the javapackages-tools module.

    # dnf module -y javapackages-tools
  2. Enable the pki-deps module.

    # dnf module -y enable pki-deps
  3. Enable version 12 of the postgresql module.

    # dnf module -y enable postgresql:12
  4. Synchronize installed packages to update them to the latest available versions.

    # dnf distro-sync --nobest
    Additional resources

    For information on modules and module streams, see the following sections in Installing, managing, and removing user-space components

Before configuring the oVirt Engine, you must manually configure the Engine database on the remote server. You can also use this procedure to manually configure the Data Warehouse database if you do not want the Data Warehouse setup script to configure it automatically.

3.3. Preparing a Remote PostgreSQL Database

In a remote database environment, you must create the Engine database manually before running engine-setup.

The engine-setup and engine-backup --mode=restore commands only support system error messages in the en_US.UTF8 locale, even if the system locale is different.

The locale settings in the postgresql.conf file must be set to en_US.UTF8.

The database name must contain only numbers, underscores, and lowercase letters.

Enabling the oVirt Engine Repositories

Ensure the correct repositories are enabled:

You can check which repositories are currently enabled by running dnf repolist.

  1. Enable the javapackages-tools module.

    # dnf module -y javapackages-tools
  2. Enable version 12 of the postgresql module.

    # dnf module -y enable postgresql:12
  3. Synchronize installed packages to update them to the latest available versions.

    # dnf distro-sync --nobest
    Additional resources

    For information on modules and module streams, see the following sections in Installing, managing, and removing user-space components

Initializing the PostgreSQL Database

  1. Install the PostgreSQL server package:

    # dnf install postgresql-server postgresql-contrib
  2. Initialize the PostgreSQL database instance:

    # postgresql-setup --initdb
  3. Enable the postgresql service and configure it to start when the machine boots:

    # systemctl enable postgresql
    # systemctl start postgresql
  4. Connect to the psql command line interface as the postgres user:

    # su - postgres -c psql
  5. Create a default user. The Engine’s default user is engine:

    postgres=# create role user_name with login encrypted password 'password';
  6. Create a database. The Engine’s default database name is engine:

    postgres=# create database database_name owner user_name template template0 encoding 'UTF8' lc_collate 'en_US.UTF-8' lc_ctype 'en_US.UTF-8';
  7. Connect to the new database:

    postgres=# \c database_name
  8. Add the uuid-ossp extension:

    database_name=# CREATE EXTENSION "uuid-ossp";
  9. Add the plpgsql language if it does not exist:

    database_name=# CREATE LANGUAGE plpgsql;
  10. Quit the psql interface:

    database_name=# \q
  11. Edit the /var/lib/pgsql/data/pg_hba.conf file to enable md5 client authentication, so that the engine can access the database remotely. Add the following line immediately below the line that starts with local at the bottom of the file. Replace X.X.X.X with the IP address of the Engine or Data Warehouse machine, and replace 0-32 or 0-128 with the CIDR mask length:

    host    database_name    user_name    X.X.X.X/0-32    md5
    host    database_name    user_name    X.X.X.X::/0-128   md5

    For example:

    # IPv4, 32-bit address:
    host    engine    engine    192.168.12.10/32    md5
    
    # IPv6, 128-bit address:
    host    engine    engine    fe80::7a31:c1ff:0000:0000/96   md5
  12. Allow TCP/IP connections to the database. Edit the /var/lib/pgsql/data/postgresql.conf file and add the following line:

    listen_addresses='*'

    This example configures the postgresql service to listen for connections on all interfaces. You can specify an interface by giving its IP address.

  13. Update the PostgreSQL server’s configuration. In the /var/lib/pgsql/data/postgresql.conf file, add the following lines to the bottom of the file:

    autovacuum_vacuum_scale_factor=0.01
    autovacuum_analyze_scale_factor=0.075
    autovacuum_max_workers=6
    maintenance_work_mem=65536
    max_connections=150
    work_mem=8192
  14. Open the default port used for PostgreSQL database connections, and save the updated firewall rules:

    # firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-service=postgresql
    # firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-service=postgresql
  15. Restart the postgresql service:

    # systemctl restart postgresql
  16. Optionally, set up SSL to secure database connections using the instructions at https://www.postgresql.org/docs/12/ssl-tcp.html#SSL-FILE-USAGE.

3.4. Installing and Configuring the oVirt Engine

Install the package and dependencies for the oVirt Engine, and configure it using the engine-setup command. The script asks you a series of questions and, after you provide the required values for all questions, applies that configuration and starts the ovirt-engine service.

The engine-setup command guides you through several distinct configuration stages, each comprising several steps that require user input. Suggested configuration defaults are provided in square brackets; if the suggested value is acceptable for a given step, press Enter to accept that value.

You can run engine-setup --accept-defaults to automatically accept all questions that have default answers. This option should be used with caution and only if you are familiar with engine-setup.

Procedure
  1. Ensure all packages are up to date:

    # dnf upgrade --nobest

    Reboot the machine if any kernel-related packages were updated.

  2. Install the ovirt-engine package and dependencies.

    # dnf install ovirt-engine
  3. Run the engine-setup command to begin configuring the oVirt Engine:

    # engine-setup
  4. Optional: Type Yes and press Enter to set up Cinderlib integration on this machine:

    Set up Cinderlib integration
    (Currently in tech preview)
    (Yes, No) [No]:

    For instructions on setting up Cinderlib, see Setting up Cinderlib.

    Cinderlib is a Technology Preview feature only. Technology Preview features are not supported with Red Hat production service level agreements (SLAs), might not be functionally complete, and Red Hat does not recommend to use them for production. These features provide early access to upcoming product features, enabling customers to test functionality and provide feedback during the development process.

    For more information on Red Hat Technology Preview features support scope, see https://access.redhat.com/support/offerings/techpreview/.

  5. Press Enter to configure the Engine on this machine:

    Configure Engine on this host (Yes, No) [Yes]:
  6. Optional: Install Open Virtual Network (OVN). Selecting Yes installs an OVN server on the Engine machine and adds it to oVirt as an external network provider. This action also configures the Default cluster to use OVN as its default network provider.

    Also see the "Next steps" in Adding Open Virtual Network (OVN) as an External Network Provider in the Administration Guide.

    Configuring ovirt-provider-ovn also sets the Default cluster’s default network provider to ovirt-provider-ovn.
    Non-Default clusters may be configured with an OVN after installation.
    Configure ovirt-provider-ovn (Yes, No) [Yes]:

    For more information on using OVN networks in oVirt, see Adding Open Virtual Network (OVN) as an External Network Provider in the Administration Guide.

  7. Optional: Allow engine-setup to configure a WebSocket Proxy server for allowing users to connect to virtual machines through the noVNC console:

    Configure WebSocket Proxy on this machine? (Yes, No) [Yes]:
  8. To configure Data Warehouse on a remote server, answer No and see Installing and Configuring Data Warehouse on a Separate Machine after completing the Engine configuration.

    Please note: Data Warehouse is required for the engine. If you choose to not configure it on this host, you have to configure it on a remote host, and then configure the engine on this host so that it can access the database of the remote Data Warehouse host.
    Configure Data Warehouse on this host (Yes, No) [Yes]:

    oVirt only supports installing the Data Warehouse database, the Data Warehouse service, and Grafana all on the same machine as each other.

  9. To configure Grafana on the same machine as the Data Warehouse service, enter No:

    Configure Grafana on this host (Yes, No) [Yes]:
  10. Optional: Allow access to a virtual machine’s serial console from the command line.

    Configure VM Console Proxy on this host (Yes, No) [Yes]:

    Additional configuration is required on the client machine to use this feature. See Opening a Serial Console to a Virtual Machine in the Virtual Machine Management Guide.

  11. Press Enter to accept the automatically detected host name, or enter an alternative host name and press Enter. Note that the automatically detected host name may be incorrect if you are using virtual hosts.

    Host fully qualified DNS name of this server [autodetected host name]:
  12. The engine-setup command checks your firewall configuration and offers to open the ports used by the Engine for external communication, such as ports 80 and 443. If you do not allow engine-setup to modify your firewall configuration, you must manually open the ports used by the Engine. firewalld is configured as the firewall manager.

    Setup can automatically configure the firewall on this system.
    Note: automatic configuration of the firewall may overwrite current settings.
    Do you want Setup to configure the firewall? (Yes, No) [Yes]:

    If you choose to automatically configure the firewall, and no firewall managers are active, you are prompted to select your chosen firewall manager from a list of supported options. Type the name of the firewall manager and press Enter. This applies even in cases where only one option is listed.

  13. Specify whether to configure the Engine database on this machine, or on another machine:

    Where is the Engine database located? (Local, Remote) [Local]:
    • If you select Remote, input the following values for the preconfigured remote database server. Replace localhost with the ip address or FQDN of the remote database server:

      Engine database host [localhost]:
      Engine database port [5432]:
      Engine database secured connection (Yes, No) [No]:
      Engine database name [engine]:
      Engine database user [engine]:
      Engine database password:
  14. Set a password for the automatically created administrative user of the oVirt Engine:

    Engine admin password:
    Confirm engine admin password:
  15. Select Gluster, Virt, or Both:

    Application mode (Both, Virt, Gluster) [Both]:

    Both offers the greatest flexibility. In most cases, select Both. Virt allows you to run virtual machines in the environment; Gluster only allows you to manage GlusterFS from the Administration Portal.

  16. If you installed the OVN provider, you can choose to use the default credentials, or specify an alternative.

    Use default credentials (admin@internal) for ovirt-provider-ovn (Yes, No) [Yes]:
    oVirt OVN provider user[admin@internal]:
    oVirt OVN provider password:
  17. Set the default value for the wipe_after_delete flag, which wipes the blocks of a virtual disk when the disk is deleted.

    Default SAN wipe after delete (Yes, No) [No]:
  18. The Engine uses certificates to communicate securely with its hosts. This certificate can also optionally be used to secure HTTPS communications with the Engine. Provide the organization name for the certificate:

    Organization name for certificate [autodetected domain-based name]:
  19. Optionally allow engine-setup to make the landing page of the Engine the default page presented by the Apache web server:

    Setup can configure the default page of the web server to present the application home page. This may conflict with existing applications.
    Do you wish to set the application as the default web page of the server? (Yes, No) [Yes]:
  20. By default, external SSL (HTTPS) communication with the Engine is secured with the self-signed certificate created earlier in the configuration to securely communicate with hosts. Alternatively, choose another certificate for external HTTPS connections; this does not affect how the Engine communicates with hosts:

    Setup can configure apache to use SSL using a certificate issued from the internal CA.
    Do you wish Setup to configure that, or prefer to perform that manually? (Automatic, Manual) [Automatic]:
  21. You can specify a unique password for the Grafana admin user, or use same one as the Engine admin password:

    Use Engine admin password as initial Grafana admin password (Yes, No) [Yes]:
  22. Review the installation settings, and press Enter to accept the values and proceed with the installation:

    Please confirm installation settings (OK, Cancel) [OK]:

    When your environment has been configured, engine-setup displays details about how to access your environment. If you chose to manually configure the firewall, engine-setup provides a custom list of ports that need to be opened, based on the options selected during setup. engine-setup also saves your answers to a file that can be used to reconfigure the Engine using the same values, and outputs the location of the log file for the oVirt Engine configuration process.

  23. If you intend to link your oVirt environment with a directory server, configure the date and time to synchronize with the system clock used by the directory server to avoid unexpected account expiry issues. See Synchronizing the System Clock with a Remote Server in the Enterprise Linux System Administrator’s Guide for more information.

  24. Install the certificate authority according to the instructions provided by your browser. You can get the certificate authority’s certificate by navigating to http://manager-fqdn/ovirt-engine/services/pki-resource?resource=ca-certificate&format=X509-PEM-CA, replacing manager-fqdn with the FQDN that you provided during the installation.

Install the Data Warehouse service and database on the remote server:

3.5. Installing and Configuring Data Warehouse on a Separate Machine

This section describes installing and configuring the Data Warehouse service on a separate machine from the oVirt Engine. Installing Data Warehouse on a separate machine helps to reduce the load on the Engine machine.

oVirt only supports installing the Data Warehouse database, the Data Warehouse service and Grafana all on the same machine as each other, even though you can install each of these components on separate machines from each other.

Prerequisites
  • The oVirt Engine is installed on a separate machine.

  • A physical server or virtual machine running Enterprise Linux 8.

  • The Engine database password.

Enabling the oVirt Engine Repositories

Ensure the correct repositories are enabled:

You can check which repositories are currently enabled by running dnf repolist.

  1. Enable the javapackages-tools module.

    # dnf module -y javapackages-tools
  2. Enable the pki-deps module.

    # dnf module -y enable pki-deps
  3. Enable version 12 of the postgresql module.

    # dnf module -y enable postgresql:12
  4. Synchronize installed packages to update them to the latest available versions.

    # dnf distro-sync --nobest
    Additional resources

    For information on modules and module streams, see the following sections in Installing, managing, and removing user-space components

Installing Data Warehouse on a Separate Machine

Procedure
  1. Log in to the machine where you want to install the database.

  2. Ensure that all packages are up to date:

    # dnf upgrade --nobest
  3. Install the ovirt-engine-dwh-setup package:

    # dnf install ovirt-engine-dwh-setup
  4. Run the engine-setup command to begin the installation:

    # engine-setup
  5. Answer Yes to install Data Warehouse on this machine:

    Configure Data Warehouse on this host (Yes, No) [Yes]:
  6. Answer Yes to install Grafana on this machine:

    Configure Grafana on this host (Yes, No) [Yes]:
  7. Press Enter to accept the automatically-detected host name, or enter an alternative host name and press Enter:

    Host fully qualified DNS name of this server [autodetected hostname]:
  8. Press Enter to automatically configure the firewall, or type No and press Enter to maintain existing settings:

    Setup can automatically configure the firewall on this system.
    Note: automatic configuration of the firewall may overwrite current settings.
    Do you want Setup to configure the firewall? (Yes, No) [Yes]:

    If you choose to automatically configure the firewall, and no firewall managers are active, you are prompted to select your chosen firewall manager from a list of supported options. Type the name of the firewall manager and press Enter. This applies even in cases where only one option is listed.

  9. Enter the fully qualified domain name of the Engine machine, and then press Enter:

    Host fully qualified DNS name of the engine server []:
  10. Press Enter to allow setup to sign the certificate on the Engine via SSH:

    Setup will need to do some actions on the remote engine server. Either automatically, using ssh as root to access it, or you will be prompted to manually perform each such action.
    Please choose one of the following:
    1 - Access remote engine server using ssh as root
    2 - Perform each action manually, use files to copy content around
    (1, 2) [1]:
  11. Press Enter to accept the default SSH port, or enter an alternative port number and then press Enter:

    ssh port on remote engine server [22]:
  12. Enter the root password for the Engine machine:

    root password on remote engine server manager.example.com:
  13. Specify whether to host the Data Warehouse database on this machine (Local), or on another machine (Remote).:

    oVirt only supports installing the Data Warehouse database, the Data Warehouse service and Grafana all on the same machine as each other, even though you can install each of these components on separate machines from each other.

    Where is the DWH database located? (Local, Remote) [Local]:
    • If you select Local, the engine-setup script can configure your database automatically (including adding a user and a database), or it can connect to a preconfigured local database:

      Setup can configure the local postgresql server automatically for the DWH to run. This may conflict with existing applications.
      Would you like Setup to automatically configure postgresql and create DWH database, or prefer to perform that manually? (Automatic, Manual) [Automatic]:
      • If you select Automatic by pressing Enter, no further action is required here.

      • If you select Manual, input the following values for the manually-configured local database:

        DWH database secured connection (Yes, No) [No]:
        DWH database name [ovirt_engine_history]:
        DWH database user [ovirt_engine_history]:
        DWH database password:
    • If you select Remote, you are prompted to provide details about the remote database host. Input the following values for the preconfigured remote database host:

      DWH database host []: dwh-db-fqdn
      DWH database port [5432]:
      DWH database secured connection (Yes, No) [No]:
      DWH database name [ovirt_engine_history]:
      DWH database user [ovirt_engine_history]:
      DWH database password: password
    • If you select Remote, you are prompted to enter the username and password for the Grafana database user:

      Grafana database user [ovirt_engine_history_grafana]:
      Grafana database password:
  14. Enter the fully qualified domain name and password for the Engine database machine. If you are installing the Data Warehouse database on the same machine where the Engine database is installed, use the same FQDN. Press Enter to accept the default values in each other field:

    Engine database host []: engine-db-fqdn
    Engine database port [5432]:
    Engine database secured connection (Yes, No) [No]:
    Engine database name [engine]:
    Engine database user [engine]:
    Engine database password: password
  15. Choose how long Data Warehouse will retain collected data:

    Please choose Data Warehouse sampling scale:
    (1) Basic
    (2) Full
    (1, 2)[1]:

    Full uses the default values for the data storage settings listed in Application Settings for the Data Warehouse service in ovirt-engine-dwhd.conf (recommended when Data Warehouse is installed on a remote host).

    Basic reduces the values of DWH_TABLES_KEEP_HOURLY to 720 and DWH_TABLES_KEEP_DAILY to 0, easing the load on the Engine machine. Use Basic when the Engine and Data Warehouse are installed on the same machine.

  16. Confirm your installation settings:

    Please confirm installation settings (OK, Cancel) [OK]:
  17. After the Data Warehouse configuration is complete, on the oVirt Engine, restart the ovirt-engine service:

    # systemctl restart ovirt-engine
  18. Optionally, set up SSL to secure database connections using the instructions at link: https://www.postgresql.org/docs/12/ssl-tcp.html#SSL-FILE-USAGE.

Log in to the Administration Portal, where you can add hosts and storage to the environment:

3.6. Connecting to the Administration Portal

Access the Administration Portal using a web browser.

  1. In a web browser, navigate to https://manager-fqdn/ovirt-engine, replacing manager-fqdn with the FQDN that you provided during installation.

    You can access the Administration Portal using alternate host names or IP addresses. To do so, you need to add a configuration file under /etc/ovirt-engine/engine.conf.d/. For example:

    # vi /etc/ovirt-engine/engine.conf.d/99-custom-sso-setup.conf
    SSO_ALTERNATE_ENGINE_FQDNS="alias1.example.com alias2.example.com"

    The list of alternate host names needs to be separated by spaces. You can also add the IP address of the Engine to the list, but using IP addresses instead of DNS-resolvable host names is not recommended.

  2. Click Administration Portal. An SSO login page displays. SSO login enables you to log in to the Administration and VM Portal at the same time.

  3. Enter your User Name and Password. If you are logging in for the first time, use the user name admin along with the password that you specified during installation.

  4. Select the Domain to authenticate against. If you are logging in using the internal admin user name, select the internal domain.

  5. Click Log In.

  6. You can view the Administration Portal in multiple languages. The default selection is chosen based on the locale settings of your web browser. If you want to view the Administration Portal in a language other than the default, select your preferred language from the drop-down list on the welcome page.

To log out of the oVirt Administration Portal, click your user name in the header bar and click Sign Out. You are logged out of all portals and the Engine welcome screen displays.

4. Installing Hosts for oVirt

oVirt supports two types of hosts: oVirt Nodes (oVirt Node) and Enterprise Linux hosts. Depending on your environment, you may want to use one type only, or both. At least two hosts are required for features such as migration and high availability.

See Recommended Practices for Configuring Host Networks for networking information.

SELinux is in enforcing mode upon installation. To verify, run getenforce. SELinux must be in enforcing mode on all hosts and Managers for your oVirt environment to be supported.

Table 7. Host Types
Host Type Other Names Description

oVirt Node

oVirt Node, thin host

This is a minimal operating system based on Enterprise Linux. It is distributed as an ISO file from the Customer Portal and contains only the packages required for the machine to act as a host.

Enterprise Linux host

Enterprise Linux host, thick host

Enterprise Linux systems with the appropriate repositories enabled can be used as hosts.

Host Compatibility

When you create a new data center, you can set the compatibility version. Select the compatibility version that suits all the hosts in the data center. Once set, version regression is not allowed. For a fresh oVirt installation, the latest compatibility version is set in the default data center and default cluster; to use an earlier compatibility version, you must create additional data centers and clusters. For more information about compatibility versions see oVirt Engine Compatibility in oVirt Life Cycle.

4.1. oVirt Nodes

4.1.1. Installing oVirt Nodes

oVirt Node (oVirt Node) is a minimal operating system based on Enterprise Linux that is designed to provide a simple method for setting up a physical machine to act as a hypervisor in a oVirt environment. The minimal operating system contains only the packages required for the machine to act as a hypervisor, and features a Cockpit web interface for monitoring the host and performing administrative tasks. See http://cockpit-project.org/running.html for the minimum browser requirements.

oVirt Node supports NIST 800-53 partitioning requirements to improve security. oVirt Node uses a NIST 800-53 partition layout by default.

The host must meet the minimum host requirements.

When installing or reinstalling the host’s operating system, oVirt strongly recommends that you first detach any existing non-OS storage that is attached to the host to avoid accidental initialization of these disks, and with that, potential data loss.

Procedure
  1. Visit the oVirt Node Download page.

  2. Choose the version of oVirt Node to download and click its Installation ISO link.

  3. Write the oVirt Node Installation ISO disk image to a USB, CD, or DVD.

  4. Start the machine on which you are installing oVirt Node, booting from the prepared installation media.

  5. From the boot menu, select Install oVirt Node 4.4 and press Enter.

    You can also press the Tab key to edit the kernel parameters. Kernel parameters must be separated by a space, and you can boot the system using the specified kernel parameters by pressing the Enter key. Press the Esc key to clear any changes to the kernel parameters and return to the boot menu.

  6. Select a language, and click Continue.

  7. Select a keyboard layout from the Keyboard Layout screen and click Done.

  8. Select the device on which to install oVirt Node from the Installation Destination screen. Optionally, enable encryption. Click Done.

    Use the Automatically configure partitioning option.

  9. Select a time zone from the Time & Date screen and click Done.

  10. Select a network from the Network & Host Name screen and click Configure…​ to configure the connection details.

    To use the connection every time the system boots, select the Connect automatically with priority check box. For more information, see Configuring network and host name options in the Enterprise Linux 8 Installation Guide.

    Enter a host name in the Host Name field, and click Done.

  11. Optionally configure Language Support, Security Policy, and Kdump. See Customizing your RHEL installation using the GUI in Performing a standard RHEL installation for _Enterprise Linux 8 for more information on each of the sections in the Installation Summary screen.

  12. Click Begin Installation.

  13. Set a root password and, optionally, create an additional user while oVirt Node installs.

    Do not create untrusted users on oVirt Node, as this can lead to exploitation of local security vulnerabilities.

  14. Click Reboot to complete the installation.

    When oVirt Node restarts, nodectl check performs a health check on the host and displays the result when you log in on the command line. The message node status: OK or node status: DEGRADED indicates the health status. Run nodectl check to get more information.

4.1.2. Installing a third-party package on oVirt-node

If you need a package that is not included in the ovirt-release44.rpm repository, you need to provide the repository before you can install the package.

Prerequisites
  • The path to the repository that includes the package you want to install.

  • You are logged in to the host with root permissions.

Procedure
  1. Open an existing .repo file or create a new one in /etc/yum.repos.d/.

  2. Add an entry to the .repo file. For example, to install sssd-ldap, add the following entry to a new .repo file name third-party.repo:

    # imgbased: set-enabled
    [custom-sssd-ldap]
    name = Provides sssd-ldap
    mirrorlist = http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=BaseOS&infra=$infra
    gpgcheck = 1
    enabled = 1
    gpgkey = file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-centosofficial
    includepkgs = sssd-ldap
  3. Install ` sssd-ldap`:

    # dnf install sssd-ldap

4.1.3. Advanced Installation

Custom Partitioning

Custom partitioning on oVirt Node (oVirt Node) is not recommended. Use the Automatically configure partitioning option in the Installation Destination window.

If your installation requires custom partitioning, select the I will configure partitioning option during the installation, and note that the following restrictions apply:

  • Ensure the default LVM Thin Provisioning option is selected in the Manual Partitioning window.

  • The following directories are required and must be on thin provisioned logical volumes:

    • root (/)

    • /home

    • /tmp

    • /var

    • /var/crash

    • /var/log

    • /var/log/audit

      Do not create a separate partition for /usr. Doing so will cause the installation to fail.

      /usr must be on a logical volume that is able to change versions along with oVirt Node, and therefore should be left on root (/).

      For information about the required storage sizes for each partition, see Storage Requirements.

  • The /boot directory should be defined as a standard partition.

  • The /var directory must be on a separate volume or disk.

  • Only XFS or Ext4 file systems are supported.

Configuring Manual Partitioning in a Kickstart File

The following example demonstrates how to configure manual partitioning in a Kickstart file.

clearpart --all
part /boot --fstype xfs --size=1000 --ondisk=sda
part pv.01 --size=42000 --grow
volgroup HostVG pv.01 --reserved-percent=20
logvol swap --vgname=HostVG --name=swap --fstype=swap --recommended
logvol none --vgname=HostVG --name=HostPool --thinpool --size=40000 --grow
logvol / --vgname=HostVG --name=root --thin --fstype=ext4 --poolname=HostPool --fsoptions="defaults,discard" --size=6000 --grow
logvol /var --vgname=HostVG --name=var --thin --fstype=ext4 --poolname=HostPool
--fsoptions="defaults,discard" --size=15000
logvol /var/crash --vgname=HostVG --name=var_crash --thin --fstype=ext4 --poolname=HostPool --fsoptions="defaults,discard" --size=10000
logvol /var/log --vgname=HostVG --name=var_log --thin --fstype=ext4 --poolname=HostPool --fsoptions="defaults,discard" --size=8000
logvol /var/log/audit --vgname=HostVG --name=var_audit --thin --fstype=ext4 --poolname=HostPool --fsoptions="defaults,discard" --size=2000
logvol /home --vgname=HostVG --name=home --thin --fstype=ext4 --poolname=HostPool --fsoptions="defaults,discard" --size=1000
logvol /tmp --vgname=HostVG --name=tmp --thin --fstype=ext4 --poolname=HostPool --fsoptions="defaults,discard" --size=1000

If you use logvol --thinpool --grow, you must also include volgroup --reserved-space or volgroup --reserved-percent to reserve space in the volume group for the thin pool to grow.

Installing a DUD driver on a host without installer support

There are times when installing oVirt Node (oVirt Node) requires a Driver Update Disk (DUD), such as when using a hardware RAID device that is not supported by the default configuration of oVirt Node. In contrast with Enterprise Linux hosts, oVirt Node does not fully support using a DUD. Subsequently the host fails to boot normally after installation because it does not see RAID. Instead it boots into emergency mode.

Example output:

Warning: /dev/test/rhvh-4.4-20210202.0+1 does not exist
Warning: /dev/test/swap does not exist
Entering emergency mode. Exit the shell to continue.

In such a case you can manually add the drivers before finishing the installation.

Prerequisites
  • A machine onto which you are installing oVirt Node.

  • A DUD.

  • If you are using a USB drive for the DUD and oVirt Node, you must have at least two available USB ports.

Procedure
  1. Load the DUD on the host machine.

    You can search for DUDs or modules for CentOS Stream at the following locations:

  2. Install oVirt Node. See Installing oVirt Nodes in Installing oVirt as a self-hosted engine using the command line.

    When installation completes, do not reboot the system.

    If you want to access the DUD using SSH, do the following:

    • Add the string inst.sshd to the kernel command line:

      <kernel_command_line> inst.sshd
    • Enable networking during the installation.

  3. Enter the console mode, by pressing Ctrl + Alt + F3. Alternatively you can connect to it using SSH.

  4. Mount the DUD:

    # mkdir /mnt/dud
    # mount -r /dev/<dud_device> /mnt/dud
  5. Copy the RPM file inside the DUD to the target machine’s disk:

    # cp /mnt/dud/rpms/<path>/<rpm_file>.rpm /mnt/sysroot/root/

    For example:

    # cp /mnt/dud/rpms/x86_64/kmod-3w-9xxx-2.26.02.014-5.el8_3.elrepo.x86_64.rpm /mnt/sysroot/root/
  6. Change the root directory to /mnt/sysroot:

    # chroot /mnt/sysroot
  7. Back up the current initrd images. For example:

    # cp -p /boot/initramfs-4.18.0-240.15.1.el8_3.x86_64.img /boot/initramfs-4.18.0-240.15.1.el8_3.x86_64.img.bck1
    # cp -p /boot/ovirt-node-ng-4.4.5.1-0.20210323.0+1/initramfs-4.18.0-240.15.1.el8_3.x86_64.img /boot/ovirt-node-ng-4.4.5.1-0.20210323.0+1/initramfs-4.18.0-240.15.1.el8_3.x86_64.img.bck1
  8. Install the RPM file for the driver from the copy you made earlier.

    For example:

    # dnf install /root/kmod-3w-9xxx-2.26.02.014-5.el8_3.elrepo.x86_64.rpm

    This package is not visible on the system after you reboot into the installed environment, so if you need it, for example, to rebuild the initramfs, you need to install that package once again, after which the package remains.

    If you update the host using dnf, the driver update persists, so you do not need to repeat this process.

    If you do not have an internet connection, use the rpm command instead of dnf:

    # rpm -ivh /root/kmod-3w-9xxx-2.26.02.014-5.el8_3.elrepo.x86_64.rpm
  9. Create a new image, forcefully adding the driver:

    # dracut --force --add-drivers <module_name> --kver <kernel_version>

    For example:

    # dracut --force --add-drivers 3w-9xxx --kver 4.18.0-240.15.1.el8_3.x86_64
  10. Check the results. The new image should be larger, and include the driver. For example, compare the sizes of the original, backed-up image file and the new image file.

    In this example, the new image file is 88739013 bytes, larger than the original 88717417 bytes:

    # ls -ltr /boot/initramfs-4.18.0-240.15.1.el8_3.x86_64.img*
    -rw-------. 1 root root 88717417 Jun  2 14:29 /boot/initramfs-4.18.0-240.15.1.el8_3.x86_64.img.bck1
    -rw-------. 1 root root 88739013 Jun  2 17:47 /boot/initramfs-4.18.0-240.15.1.el8_3.x86_64.img

    The new drivers should be part of the image file. For example, the 3w-9xxx module should be included:

    # lsinitrd /boot/initramfs-4.18.0-240.15.1.el8_3.x86_64.img | grep 3w-9xxx
    drwxr-xr-x   2 root     root            0 Feb 22 15:57 usr/lib/modules/4.18.0-240.15.1.el8_3.x86_64/weak-updates/3w-9xxx
    lrwxrwxrwx   1 root     root           55 Feb 22 15:57 usr/lib/modules/4.18.0-240.15.1.el8_3.x86_64/weak-updates/3w-9xxx/3w-9xxx.ko-../../../4.18.0-240.el8.x86_64/extra/3w-9xxx/3w-9xxx.ko
    drwxr-xr-x   2 root     root            0 Feb 22 15:57 usr/lib/modules/4.18.0-240.el8.x86_64/extra/3w-9xxx
    -rw-r--r--   1 root     root        80121 Nov 10  2020 usr/lib/modules/4.18.0-240.el8.x86_64/extra/3w-9xxx/3w-9xxx.ko
  11. Copy the image to the the directory under /boot that contains the kernel to be used in the layer being installed, for example:

    # cp -p /boot/initramfs-4.18.0-240.15.1.el8_3.x86_64.img /boot/ovirt-node-ng-4.4.5.1-0.20210323.0+1/initramfs-4.18.0-240.15.1.el8_3.x86_64.img
  12. Exit chroot.

  13. Exit the shell.

  14. If you used Ctrl + Alt + F3 to access a virtual terminal, then move back to the installer by pressing Ctrl + Alt + F_<n>_, usually F1 or F5

  15. At the installer screen, reboot.

Verification

The machine should reboot successfully.

Automating oVirt Node deployment

You can install oVirt Node (oVirt Node) without a physical media device by booting from a PXE server over the network with a Kickstart file that contains the answers to the installation questions.

When installing or reinstalling the host’s operating system, oVirt strongly recommends that you first detach any existing non-OS storage that is attached to the host to avoid accidental initialization of these disks, and with that, potential data loss.

General instructions for installing from a PXE server with a Kickstart file are available in the Enterprise Linux Installation Guide, as oVirt Node is installed in much the same way as Enterprise Linux. oVirt Node-specific instructions, with examples for deploying oVirt Node with Red Hat Satellite, are described below.

The automated oVirt Node deployment has 3 stages:

Preparing the installation environment
  1. Visit the oVirt Node Download page.

  2. Choose the version of oVirt Node to download and click its Installation ISO link.

  3. Make the oVirt Node ISO image available over the network. See Installation Source on a Network in the Enterprise Linux Installation Guide.

  4. Extract the squashfs.img hypervisor image file from the oVirt Node ISO:

    # mount -o loop /path/to/oVirt Node-ISO /mnt/rhvh
    # cp /mnt/rhvh/Packages/redhat-virtualization-host-image-update* /tmp
    # cd /tmp
    # rpm2cpio redhat-virtualization-host-image-update* | cpio -idmv

    This squashfs.img file, located in the /tmp/usr/share/redhat-virtualization-host/image/ directory, is called redhat-virtualization-host-version_number_version.squashfs.img. It contains the hypervisor image for installation on the physical machine. It should not be confused with the /LiveOS/squashfs.img file, which is used by the Anaconda inst.stage2 option.

Configuring the PXE server and the boot loader
  1. Configure the PXE server. See Preparing for a Network Installation in the Enterprise Linux Installation Guide.

  2. Copy the oVirt Node boot images to the /tftpboot directory:

    # cp mnt/rhvh/images/pxeboot/{vmlinuz,initrd.img} /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux/
  3. Create a rhvh label specifying the oVirt Node boot images in the boot loader configuration:

    LABEL rhvh
    MENU LABEL Install oVirt Node
    KERNEL /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux/vmlinuz
    APPEND initrd=/var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux/initrd.img inst.stage2=URL/to/oVirt Node-ISO
    oVirt Node Boot loader configuration example for Red Hat Satellite

    If you are using information from Red Hat Satellite to provision the host, you must create a global or host group level parameter called rhvh_image and populate it with the directory URL where the ISO is mounted or extracted:

    <%#
    kind: PXELinux
    name: oVirt Node PXELinux
    %>
    # Created for booting new hosts
    #
    
    DEFAULT rhvh
    
    LABEL rhvh
    KERNEL <%= @kernel %>
    APPEND initrd=<%= @initrd %> inst.ks=<%= foreman_url("provision") %> inst.stage2=<%= @host.params["rhvh_image"] %> intel_iommu=on console=tty0 console=ttyS1,115200n8 ssh_pwauth=1 local_boot_trigger=<%= foreman_url("built") %>
    IPAPPEND 2
  4. Make the content of the oVirt Node ISO locally available and export it to the network, for example, using an HTTPD server:

    # cp -a /mnt/rhvh/ /var/www/html/rhvh-install
    # curl URL/to/oVirt Node-ISO/rhvh-install
Creating and running a Kickstart file
  1. Create a Kickstart file and make it available over the network. See Kickstart Installations in the Enterprise Linux Installation Guide.

  2. Ensure that the Kickstart file meets the following oVirt-specific requirements:

    • The %packages section is not required for oVirt Node. Instead, use the liveimg option and specify the redhat-virtualization-host-version_number_version.squashfs.img file from the oVirt Node ISO image:

      liveimg --url=example.com/tmp/usr/share/redhat-virtualization-host/image/redhat-virtualization-host-version_number_version.squashfs.img
    • Autopartitioning is highly recommended, but use caution: ensure that the local disk is detected first, include the ignoredisk command, and specify the local disk to ignore, such as sda. To ensure that a particular drive is used, oVirt recommends using ignoredisk --only-use=/dev/disk/<path> or ignoredisk --only-use=/dev/disk/<ID>:

      autopart --type=thinp
      ignoredisk --only-use=sda
      ignoredisk --only-use=/dev/disk/<path>
      ignoredisk --only-use=/dev/disk/<ID>

      Autopartitioning requires thin provisioning.

      The --no-home option does not work in oVirt Node because /home is a required directory.

      If your installation requires manual partitioning, see Custom Partitioning for a list of limitations that apply to partitions and an example of manual partitioning in a Kickstart file.

    • A %post section that calls the nodectl init command is required:

      %post
      nodectl init
      %end
      Kickstart example for deploying oVirt Node on its own

      This Kickstart example shows you how to deploy oVirt Node. You can include additional commands and options as required.

      This example assumes that all disks are empty and can be initialized. If you have attached disks with data, either remove them or add them to the ignoredisks property.

      liveimg --url=http://FQDN/tmp/usr/share/redhat-virtualization-host/image/redhat-virtualization-host-version_number_version.squashfs.img
      clearpart --all
      autopart --type=thinp
      rootpw --plaintext ovirt
      timezone --utc America/Phoenix
      zerombr
      text
      
      reboot
      
      %post --erroronfail
      nodectl init
      %end
  3. Add the Kickstart file location to the boot loader configuration file on the PXE server:

    APPEND initrd=/var/tftpboot/pxelinux/initrd.img inst.stage2=URL/to/oVirt Node-ISO inst.ks=URL/to/oVirt Node-ks.cfg
  4. Install oVirt Node following the instructions in Booting from the Network Using PXE in the Enterprise Linux Installation Guide.

4.2. Enterprise Linux hosts

4.2.1. Installing Enterprise Linux hosts

A Enterprise Linux host is based on a standard basic installation of Enterprise Linux 8 on a physical server, with the Enterprise Linux Server and oVirt repositories enabled.

For detailed installation instructions, see the Performing a standard EL installation.

The host must meet the minimum host requirements.

When installing or reinstalling the host’s operating system, oVirt strongly recommends that you first detach any existing non-OS storage that is attached to the host to avoid accidental initialization of these disks, and with that, potential data loss.

Virtualization must be enabled in your host’s BIOS settings. For information on changing your host’s BIOS settings, refer to your host’s hardware documentation.

Do not install third-party watchdogs on Enterprise Linux hosts. They can interfere with the watchdog daemon provided by VDSM.

4.2.2. Installing Cockpit on Enterprise Linux hosts

You can install Cockpit for monitoring the host’s resources and performing administrative tasks.

Procedure
  1. Install the dashboard packages:

    # dnf install cockpit-ovirt-dashboard
  2. Enable and start the cockpit.socket service:

    # systemctl enable cockpit.socket
    # systemctl start cockpit.socket
  3. Check if Cockpit is an active service in the firewall:

    # firewall-cmd --list-services

    You should see cockpit listed. If it is not, enter the following with root permissions to add cockpit as a service to your firewall:

    # firewall-cmd --permanent --add-service=cockpit

    The --permanent option keeps the cockpit service active after rebooting.

You can log in to the Cockpit web interface at https://HostFQDNorIP:9090.

Always use the oVirt Engine to modify the network configuration of hosts in your clusters. Otherwise, you might create an unsupported configuration. For details, see Network Manager Stateful Configuration (nmstate).

If your network environment is complex, you may need to configure a host network manually before adding the host to the oVirt Engine.

Consider the following practices for configuring a host network:

  • Configure the network with Cockpit. Alternatively, you can use nmtui or nmcli.

  • If a network is not required for a self-hosted engine deployment or for adding a host to the Engine, configure the network in the Administration Portal after adding the host to the Engine. See Creating a New Logical Network in a Data Center or Cluster.

  • Use the following naming conventions:

    • VLAN devices: VLAN_NAME_TYPE_RAW_PLUS_VID_NO_PAD

    • VLAN interfaces: physical_device.VLAN_ID (for example, eth0.23, eth1.128, enp3s0.50)

    • Bond interfaces: bondnumber (for example, bond0, bond1)

    • VLANs on bond interfaces: bondnumber.VLAN_ID (for example, bond0.50, bond1.128)

  • Use network bonding. Network teaming is not supported in oVirt and will cause errors if the host is used to deploy a self-hosted engine or added to the Engine.

  • Use recommended bonding modes:

  • Configure a VLAN on a physical NIC as in the following example (although nmcli is used, you can use any tool):

    # nmcli connection add type vlan con-name vlan50 ifname eth0.50 dev eth0 id 50
    # nmcli con mod vlan50 +ipv4.dns 8.8.8.8 +ipv4.addresses 123.123.0.1/24 +ivp4.gateway 123.123.0.254
  • Configure a VLAN on a bond as in the following example (although nmcli is used, you can use any tool):

    # nmcli connection add type bond con-name bond0 ifname bond0 bond.options "mode=active-backup,miimon=100" ipv4.method disabled ipv6.method ignore
    # nmcli connection add type ethernet con-name eth0 ifname eth0 master bond0 slave-type bond
    # nmcli connection add type ethernet con-name eth1 ifname eth1 master bond0 slave-type bond
    # nmcli connection add type vlan con-name vlan50 ifname bond0.50 dev bond0 id 50
    # nmcli con mod vlan50 +ipv4.dns 8.8.8.8 +ipv4.addresses 123.123.0.1/24 +ivp4.gateway 123.123.0.254
  • Do not disable firewalld.

  • Customize the firewall rules in the Administration Portal after adding the host to the Engine. See Configuring Host Firewall Rules.

4.4. Adding Standard Hosts to the oVirt Engine

Always use the oVirt Engine to modify the network configuration of hosts in your clusters. Otherwise, you might create an unsupported configuration. For details, see Network Manager Stateful Configuration (nmstate).

Adding a host to your oVirt environment can take some time, as the following steps are completed by the platform: virtualization checks, installation of packages, and creation of a bridge.

OVS clusters cannot contain RHEL 8 hosts. Due to a known issue, RHEL 8 hosts do not work in clusters whose Switch Type is OVS. For details, see BZ#1809116 and Open vSwitch and OpenFlow support for RHV.
Procedure
  1. From the Administration Portal, click Compute  Hosts.

  2. Click New.

  3. Use the drop-down list to select the Data Center and Host Cluster for the new host.

  4. Enter the Name and the Address of the new host. The standard SSH port, port 22, is auto-filled in the SSH Port field.

  5. Select an authentication method to use for the Engine to access the host.

    • Enter the root user’s password to use password authentication.

    • Alternatively, copy the key displayed in the SSH PublicKey field to /root/.ssh/authorized_keys on the host to use public key authentication.

  6. Optionally, click the Advanced Parameters button to change the following advanced host settings:

    • Disable automatic firewall configuration.

    • Add a host SSH fingerprint to increase security. You can add it manually, or fetch it automatically.

  7. Optionally configure power management, where the host has a supported power management card. For information on power management configuration, see Host Power Management Settings Explained in the Administration Guide.

  8. Click OK.

The new host displays in the list of hosts with a status of Installing, and you can view the progress of the installation in the Events section of the Notification Drawer (EventsIcon). After a brief delay the host status changes to Up.

5. Preparing Storage for oVirt

You need to prepare storage to be used for storage domains in the new environment. A oVirt environment must have at least one data storage domain, but adding more is recommended.

When installing or reinstalling the host’s operating system, oVirt strongly recommends that you first detach any existing non-OS storage that is attached to the host to avoid accidental initialization of these disks, and with that, potential data loss.

A data domain holds the virtual hard disks and OVF files of all the virtual machines and templates in a data center, and cannot be shared across data centers while active (but can be migrated between data centers). Data domains of multiple storage types can be added to the same data center, provided they are all shared, rather than local, domains.

You can use one of the following storage types:

5.1. Preparing NFS Storage

Set up NFS shares on your file storage or remote server to serve as storage domains on Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Host systems. After exporting the shares on the remote storage and configuring them in the Red Hat Virtualization Manager, the shares will be automatically imported on the Red Hat Virtualization hosts.

For information on setting up, configuring, mounting and exporting NFS, see Managing file systems for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8.

Specific system user accounts and system user groups are required by oVirt so the Engine can store data in the storage domains represented by the exported directories. The following procedure sets the permissions for one directory. You must repeat the chown and chmod steps for all of the directories you intend to use as storage domains in oVirt.

Prerequisites
  1. Install the NFS utils package.

    # dnf install nfs-utils -y
  2. To check the enabled versions:

    # cat /proc/fs/nfsd/versions
  3. Enable the following services:

    # systemctl enable nfs-server
    # systemctl enable rpcbind
Procedure
  1. Create the group kvm:

    # groupadd kvm -g 36
  2. Create the user vdsm in the group kvm:

    # useradd vdsm -u 36 -g kvm
  3. Create the storage directory and modify the access rights.

    # mkdir /storage
    # chmod 0755 /storage
    # chown 36:36 /storage/
  4. Add the storage directory to /etc/exports with the relevant permissions.

    # vi /etc/exports
    # cat /etc/exports
     /storage *(rw)
  5. Restart the following services:

    # systemctl restart rpcbind
    # systemctl restart nfs-server
  6. To see which export are available for a specific IP address:

    # exportfs
     /nfs_server/srv
                   10.46.11.3/24
     /nfs_server       <world>

If changes in /etc/exports have been made after starting the services, the exportfs -ra command can be used to reload the changes. After performing all the above stages, the exports directory should be ready and can be tested on a different host to check that it is usable.

5.2. Preparing iSCSI Storage

oVirt supports iSCSI storage, which is a storage domain created from a volume group made up of LUNs. Volume groups and LUNs cannot be attached to more than one storage domain at a time.

For information on setting up and configuring iSCSI storage, see Getting started with iSCSI in Managing storage devices for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8.

If you are using block storage and intend to deploy virtual machines on raw devices or direct LUNs and manage them with the Logical Volume Manager (LVM), you must create a filter to hide guest logical volumes. This will prevent guest logical volumes from being activated when the host is booted, a situation that could lead to stale logical volumes and cause data corruption. Use the vdsm-tool config-lvm-filter command to create filters for the LVM. See Creating an LVM filter

oVirt currently does not support block storage with a block size of 4K. You must configure block storage in legacy (512b block) mode.

If your host is booting from SAN storage and loses connectivity to the storage, the storage file systems become read-only and remain in this state after connectivity is restored.

To prevent this situation, add a drop-in multipath configuration file on the root file system of the SAN for the boot LUN to ensure that it is queued when there is a connection:

# cat /etc/multipath/conf.d/host.conf
multipaths {
    multipath {
        wwid boot_LUN_wwid
        no_path_retry queue
    }

5.3. Preparing FCP Storage

oVirt supports SAN storage by creating a storage domain from a volume group made of pre-existing LUNs. Neither volume groups nor LUNs can be attached to more than one storage domain at a time.

oVirt system administrators need a working knowledge of Storage Area Networks (SAN) concepts. SAN usually uses Fibre Channel Protocol (FCP) for traffic between hosts and shared external storage. For this reason, SAN may occasionally be referred to as FCP storage.

For information on setting up and configuring FCP or multipathing on Enterprise Linux, see the Storage Administration Guide and DM Multipath Guide.

If you are using block storage and intend to deploy virtual machines on raw devices or direct LUNs and manage them with the Logical Volume Manager (LVM), you must create a filter to hide guest logical volumes. This will prevent guest logical volumes from being activated when the host is booted, a situation that could lead to stale logical volumes and cause data corruption. Use the vdsm-tool config-lvm-filter command to create filters for the LVM. See Creating an LVM filter

oVirt currently does not support block storage with a block size of 4K. You must configure block storage in legacy (512b block) mode.

If your host is booting from SAN storage and loses connectivity to the storage, the storage file systems become read-only and remain in this state after connectivity is restored.

To prevent this situation, add a drop-in multipath configuration file on the root file system of the SAN for the boot LUN to ensure that it is queued when there is a connection:

# cat /etc/multipath/conf.d/host.conf
multipaths {
    multipath {
        wwid boot_LUN_wwid
        no_path_retry queue
    }

5.4. Preparing POSIX-compliant File System Storage

POSIX file system support allows you to mount file systems using the same mount options that you would normally use when mounting them manually from the command line. This functionality is intended to allow access to storage not exposed using NFS, iSCSI, or FCP.

Any POSIX-compliant file system used as a storage domain in oVirt must be a clustered file system, such as Global File System 2 (GFS2), and must support sparse files and direct I/O. The Common Internet File System (CIFS), for example, does not support direct I/O, making it incompatible with oVirt.

For information on setting up and configuring POSIX-compliant file system storage, see Enterprise Linux Global File System 2.

Do not mount NFS storage by creating a POSIX-compliant file system storage domain. Always create an NFS storage domain instead.

5.5. Preparing Local Storage

A local storage domain can be set up on a host. When you set up a host to use local storage, the host is automatically added to a new data center and cluster that no other hosts can be added to. Multiple-host clusters require that all hosts have access to all storage domains, which is not possible with local storage. Virtual machines created in a single-host cluster cannot be migrated, fenced, or scheduled.

On oVirt Node (oVirt Node), local storage should always be defined on a file system that is separate from / (root). Use a separate logical volume or disk, to prevent possible loss of data during upgrades.

Preparing Local Storage for Enterprise Linux hosts
  1. On the host, create the directory to be used for the local storage:

    # mkdir -p /data/images
  2. Ensure that the directory has permissions allowing read/write access to the vdsm user (UID 36) and kvm group (GID 36):

    # chown 36:36 /data /data/images
    # chmod 0755 /data /data/images
Preparing Local Storage for oVirt Nodes

Create the local storage on a logical volume:

  1. Create a local storage directory:

    # mkdir /data
    # lvcreate -L $SIZE rhvh -n data
    # mkfs.ext4 /dev/mapper/rhvh-data
    # echo "/dev/mapper/rhvh-data /data ext4 defaults,discard 1 2" >> /etc/fstab
    # mount /data
  2. Mount the new local storage, and then modify the permissions and ownership:

    # mount -a
    # chown 36:36 /data /rhvh-data
    # chmod 0755 /data /rhvh-data

5.6. Preparing Gluster Storage

For information on setting up and configuring Gluster Storage, see the Gluster Storage Installation Guide.

5.7. Customizing Multipath Configurations for SAN Vendors

If your RHV environment is configured to use multipath connections with SANs, you can customize the multipath configuration settings to meet requirements specified by your storage vendor. These customizations can override both the default settings and settings that are specified in /etc/multipath.conf.

To override the multipath settings, do not customize /etc/multipath.conf. Because VDSM owns /etc/multipath.conf, installing or upgrading VDSM or oVirt can overwrite this file including any customizations it contains. This overwriting can cause severe storage failures.

Instead, you create a file in the /etc/multipath/conf.d/user.conf directory that contains the settings you want to customize or override.

VDSM executes the files in /etc/multipath/conf.d/user.conf in alphabetical order. So, to control the order of execution, you begin the filename with a number that makes it come last. For example, /etc/multipath/conf.d/user.conf/90-myfile.conf.

To avoid causing severe storage failures, follow these guidelines:

  • Do not modify /etc/multipath.conf. If the file contains user modifications, and the file is overwritten, it can cause unexpected storage problems.

  • Do not override the user_friendly_names and find_multipaths settings. For details, see Recommended Settings for Multipath.conf.

  • Avoid overriding the no_path_retry and polling_interval settings unless a storage vendor specifically requires you to do so. For details, see Recommended Settings for Multipath.conf.

Not following these guidelines can cause catastrophic storage errors.

Prerequisites
  • VDSM is configured to use the multipath module. To verify this, enter:

    # vdsm-tool is-configured --module multipath
Procedure
  1. Create a new configuration file in the /etc/multipath/conf.d/user.conf directory.

  2. Copy the individual setting you want to override from /etc/multipath.conf to the new configuration file in /etc/multipath/conf.d/user.conf. Remove any comment marks, edit the setting values, and save your changes.

  3. Apply the new configuration settings by entering:

    # systemctl reload multipathd

    Do not restart the multipathd service. Doing so generates errors in the VDSM logs.

Verification steps

Test the new configuration performs as expected on a non-production cluster in a variety of failure scenarios. For example, disable all of the storage connections. Then enable one connection at a time and verify that doing so makes the storage domain reachable.

Do not override the following settings:

user_friendly_names no

Device names must be consistent across all hypervisors. For example, /dev/mapper/{WWID}. The default value of this setting, no, prevents the assignment of arbitrary and inconsistent device names such as /dev/mapper/mpath{N} on various hypervisors, which can lead to unpredictable system behavior.

Do not change this setting to user_friendly_names yes. User-friendly names are likely to cause unpredictable system behavior or failures, and are not supported.
find_multipaths no

This setting controls whether oVirt Node tries to access devices through multipath only if more than one path is available. The current value, no, allows oVirt to access devices through multipath even if only one path is available.

Do not override this setting.

Avoid overriding the following settings unless required by the storage system vendor:

no_path_retry 4

This setting controls the number of polling attempts to retry when no paths are available. Before oVirt version 4.2, the value of no_path_retry was fail because QEMU had trouble with the I/O queuing when no paths were available. The fail value made it fail quickly and paused the virtual machine. oVirt version 4.2 changed this value to 4 so when multipathd detects the last path has failed, it checks all of the paths four more times. Assuming the default 5-second polling interval, checking the paths takes 20 seconds. If no path is up, multipathd tells the kernel to stop queuing and fails all outstanding and future I/O until a path is restored. When a path is restored, the 20-second delay is reset for the next time all paths fail. For more details, see the commit that changed this setting.

polling_interval 5

This setting determines the number of seconds between polling attempts to detect whether a path is open or has failed. Unless the vendor provides a clear reason for increasing the value, keep the VDSM-generated default so the system responds to path failures sooner.

6. Adding Storage for oVirt

Add storage as data domains in the new environment. A oVirt environment must have at least one data domain, but adding more is recommended.

Add the storage you prepared earlier:

6.1. Adding NFS Storage

This procedure shows you how to attach existing NFS storage to your oVirt environment as a data domain.

If you require an ISO or export domain, use this procedure, but select ISO or Export from the Domain Function list.

Procedure
  1. In the Administration Portal, click Storage  Domains.

  2. Click New Domain.

  3. Enter a Name for the storage domain.

  4. Accept the default values for the Data Center, Domain Function, Storage Type, Format, and Host lists.

  5. Enter the Export Path to be used for the storage domain. The export path should be in the format of 123.123.0.10:/data (for IPv4), [2001:0:0:0:0:0:0:5db1]:/data (for IPv6), or domain.example.com:/data.

  6. Optionally, you can configure the advanced parameters:

    1. Click Advanced Parameters.

    2. Enter a percentage value into the Warning Low Space Indicator field. If the free space available on the storage domain is below this percentage, warning messages are displayed to the user and logged.

    3. Enter a GB value into the Critical Space Action Blocker field. If the free space available on the storage domain is below this value, error messages are displayed to the user and logged, and any new action that consumes space, even temporarily, will be blocked.

    4. Select the Wipe After Delete check box to enable the wipe after delete option. This option can be edited after the domain is created, but doing so will not change the wipe after delete property of disks that already exist.

  7. Click OK.

The new NFS data domain has a status of Locked until the disk is prepared. The data domain is then automatically attached to the data center.

6.2. Adding iSCSI Storage

This procedure shows you how to attach existing iSCSI storage to your oVirt environment as a data domain.

Procedure
  1. Click Storage  Domains.

  2. Click New Domain.

  3. Enter the Name of the new storage domain.

  4. Select a Data Center from the drop-down list.

  5. Select Data as the Domain Function and iSCSI as the Storage Type.

  6. Select an active host as the Host.

    Communication to the storage domain is from the selected host and not directly from the Engine. Therefore, all hosts must have access to the storage device before the storage domain can be configured.

  7. The Engine can map iSCSI targets to LUNs or LUNs to iSCSI targets. The New Domain window automatically displays known targets with unused LUNs when the iSCSI storage type is selected. If the target that you are using to add storage does not appear, you can use target discovery to find it; otherwise proceed to the next step.

    1. Click Discover Targets to enable target discovery options. When targets have been discovered and logged in to, the New Domain window automatically displays targets with LUNs unused by the environment.

      LUNs used externally for the environment are also displayed.

      You can use the Discover Targets options to add LUNs on many targets or multiple paths to the same LUNs.

      If you use the REST API method discoveriscsi to discover the iscsi targets, you can use an FQDN or an IP address, but you must use the iscsi details from the discovered targets results to log in using the REST API method iscsilogin. See discoveriscsi in the REST API Guide for more information.

    2. Enter the FQDN or IP address of the iSCSI host in the Address field.

    3. Enter the port with which to connect to the host when browsing for targets in the Port field. The default is 3260.

    4. If CHAP is used to secure the storage, select the User Authentication check box. Enter the CHAP user name and CHAP password.

      You can define credentials for an iSCSI target for a specific host with the REST API. See StorageServerConnectionExtensions: add in the REST API Guide for more information.

    5. Click Discover.

    6. Select one or more targets from the discovery results and click Login for one target or Login All for multiple targets.

      If more than one path access is required, you must discover and log in to the target through all the required paths. Modifying a storage domain to add additional paths is currently not supported.

      When using the REST API iscsilogin method to log in, you must use the iscsi details from the discovered targets results in the discoveriscsi method. See iscsilogin in the REST API Guide for more information.

  8. Click the + button next to the desired target. This expands the entry and displays all unused LUNs attached to the target.

  9. Select the check box for each LUN that you are using to create the storage domain.

  10. Optionally, you can configure the advanced parameters:

    1. Click Advanced Parameters.

    2. Enter a percentage value into the Warning Low Space Indicator field. If the free space available on the storage domain is below this percentage, warning messages are displayed to the user and logged.

    3. Enter a GB value into the Critical Space Action Blocker field. If the free space available on the storage domain is below this value, error messages are displayed to the user and logged, and any new action that consumes space, even temporarily, will be blocked.

    4. Select the Wipe After Delete check box to enable the wipe after delete option. This option can be edited after the domain is created, but doing so will not change the wipe after delete property of disks that already exist.

    5. Select the Discard After Delete check box to enable the discard after delete option. This option can be edited after the domain is created. This option is only available to block storage domains.

  11. Click OK.

If you have configured multiple storage connection paths to the same target, follow the procedure in Configuring iSCSI Multipathing to complete iSCSI bonding.

If you want to migrate your current storage network to an iSCSI bond, see Migrating a Logical Network to an iSCSI Bond.

6.3. Adding FCP Storage

This procedure shows you how to attach existing FCP storage to your oVirt environment as a data domain.

Procedure
  1. Click Storage  Domains.

  2. Click New Domain.

  3. Enter the Name of the storage domain.

  4. Select an FCP Data Center from the drop-down list.

    If you do not yet have an appropriate FCP data center, select (none).

  5. Select the Domain Function and the Storage Type from the drop-down lists. The storage domain types that are not compatible with the chosen data center are not available.

  6. Select an active host in the Host field. If this is not the first data domain in a data center, you must select the data center’s SPM host.

    All communication to the storage domain is through the selected host and not directly from the oVirt Engine. At least one active host must exist in the system and be attached to the chosen data center. All hosts must have access to the storage device before the storage domain can be configured.

  7. The New Domain window automatically displays known targets with unused LUNs when Fibre Channel is selected as the storage type. Select the LUN ID check box to select all of the available LUNs.

  8. Optionally, you can configure the advanced parameters.

    1. Click Advanced Parameters.

    2. Enter a percentage value into the Warning Low Space Indicator field. If the free space available on the storage domain is below this percentage, warning messages are displayed to the user and logged.

    3. Enter a GB value into the Critical Space Action Blocker field. If the free space available on the storage domain is below this value, error messages are displayed to the user and logged, and any new action that consumes space, even temporarily, will be blocked.

    4. Select the Wipe After Delete check box to enable the wipe after delete option. This option can be edited after the domain is created, but doing so will not change the wipe after delete property of disks that already exist.

    5. Select the Discard After Delete check box to enable the discard after delete option. This option can be edited after the domain is created. This option is only available to block storage domains.

  9. Click OK.

The new FCP data domain remains in a Locked status while it is being prepared for use. When ready, it is automatically attached to the data center.

6.4. Adding POSIX-compliant File System Storage

This procedure shows you how to attach existing POSIX-compliant file system storage to your oVirt environment as a data domain.

Procedure
  1. Click Storage  Domains.

  2. Click New Domain.

  3. Enter the Name for the storage domain.

  4. Select the Data Center to be associated with the storage domain. The data center selected must be of type POSIX (POSIX compliant FS). Alternatively, select (none).

  5. Select Data from the Domain Function drop-down list, and POSIX compliant FS from the Storage Type drop-down list.

    If applicable, select the Format from the drop-down menu.

  6. Select a host from the Host drop-down list.

  7. Enter the Path to the POSIX file system, as you would normally provide it to the mount command.

  8. Enter the VFS Type, as you would normally provide it to the mount command using the -t argument. See man mount for a list of valid VFS types.

  9. Enter additional Mount Options, as you would normally provide them to the mount command using the -o argument. The mount options should be provided in a comma-separated list. See man mount for a list of valid mount options.

  10. Optionally, you can configure the advanced parameters.

    1. Click Advanced Parameters.

    2. Enter a percentage value in the Warning Low Space Indicator field. If the free space available on the storage domain is below this percentage, warning messages are displayed to the user and logged.

    3. Enter a GB value in the Critical Space Action Blocker field. If the free space available on the storage domain is below this value, error messages are displayed to the user and logged, and any new action that consumes space, even temporarily, will be blocked.

    4. Select the Wipe After Delete check box to enable the wipe after delete option. This option can be edited after the domain is created, but doing so will not change the wipe after delete property of disks that already exist.

  11. Click OK.

6.5. Adding Local Storage

Adding local storage to a host places the host in a new data center and cluster. The local storage configuration window combines the creation of a data center, a cluster, and storage into a single process.

Procedure
  1. Click Compute  Hosts and select the host.

  2. Click Management  Maintenance and OK.

  3. Click Management  Configure Local Storage.

  4. Click the Edit buttons next to the Data Center, Cluster, and Storage fields to configure and name the local storage domain.

  5. Set the path to your local storage in the text entry field.

  6. If applicable, click the Optimization tab to configure the memory optimization policy for the new local storage cluster.

  7. Click OK.

Your host comes online in a data center of its own.

6.6. Adding Gluster Storage

To use Gluster Storage with oVirt, see Configuring oVirt with Gluster Storage.

For the Gluster Storage versions that are supported with oVirt, see https://access.redhat.com/articles/2356261.

Appendix A: Configuring a Host for PCI Passthrough

This is one in a series of topics that show how to set up and configure SR-IOV on oVirt. For more information, see Setting Up and Configuring SR-IOV

Enabling PCI passthrough allows a virtual machine to use a host device as if the device were directly attached to the virtual machine. To enable the PCI passthrough function, you must enable virtualization extensions and the IOMMU function. The following procedure requires you to reboot the host. If the host is attached to the Engine already, ensure you place the host into maintenance mode first.

Prerequisites
  • Ensure that the host hardware meets the requirements for PCI device passthrough and assignment. See PCI Device Requirements for more information.

Configuring a Host for PCI Passthrough
  1. Enable the virtualization extension and IOMMU extension in the BIOS. See Enabling Intel VT-x and AMD-V virtualization hardware extensions in BIOS in the Enterprise Linux Virtualization Deployment and Administration Guide for more information.

  2. Enable the IOMMU flag in the kernel by selecting the Hostdev Passthrough & SR-IOV check box when adding the host to the Engine or by editing the grub configuration file manually.

  3. For GPU passthrough, you need to run additional configuration steps on both the host and the guest system. See GPU device passthrough: Assigning a host GPU to a single virtual machine in Setting up an NVIDIA GPU for a virtual machine in Red Hat Virtualization for more information.

Enabling IOMMU Manually
  1. Enable IOMMU by editing the grub configuration file.

    If you are using IBM POWER8 hardware, skip this step as IOMMU is enabled by default.

    • For Intel, boot the machine, and append intel_iommu=on to the end of the GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX line in the grub configuration file.

      # vi /etc/default/grub
      ...
      GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX="nofb splash=quiet console=tty0 ... intel_iommu=on
      ...
    • For AMD, boot the machine, and append amd_iommu=on to the end of the GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX line in the grub configuration file.

      # vi /etc/default/grub
      ...
      GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX="nofb splash=quiet console=tty0 ... amd_iommu=on
      ...

      If intel_iommu=on or an AMD IOMMU is detected, you can try adding iommu=pt. The pt option only enables IOMMU for devices used in passthrough and provides better host performance. However, the option might not be supported on all hardware. Revert to the previous option if the pt option doesn’t work for your host.

      If the passthrough fails because the hardware does not support interrupt remapping, you can consider enabling the allow_unsafe_interrupts option if the virtual machines are trusted. The allow_unsafe_interrupts is not enabled by default because enabling it potentially exposes the host to MSI attacks from virtual machines. To enable the option:

      # vi /etc/modprobe.d
      options vfio_iommu_type1 allow_unsafe_interrupts=1
  2. Refresh the grub.cfg file and reboot the host for these changes to take effect:

    # grub2-mkconfig -o /boot/grub2/grub.cfg
    # reboot

To enable SR-IOV and assign dedicated virtual NICs to virtual machines, see https://access.redhat.com/articles/2335291.

Appendix B: Setting up Cinderlib

Setting up Cinderlib on the Engine
  1. Enable the openstack-cinderlib repositories on Red Hat Enterprise Linux:

    # subscription-manager repos --enable=openstack-16.1-cinderlib-for-rhel-8-x86_64-rpms
  2. Enable the centos-release-openstack-ussuri repositories on CentOS Stream:

    # yum install centos-release-openstack-ussuri.noarch
  3. Install the OpenStack Cinderlib package:

    # dnf install -y python3-cinderlib
  4. In the oVirt Engine, enable managed block domain support:

    # engine-config -s ManagedBlockDomainSupported=true
  5. Restart the Engine to save the new configuration:

    # systemctl restart ovirt-engine
Setting up Cinderlib on the host
  1. Enable the openstack-cinderlib repositories on Red Hat Enterprise Linux:

    # subscription-manager repos --enable=openstack-16.1-cinderlib-for-rhel-8-x86_64-rpms
  2. Enable the centos-release-openstack-ussuri repositories on CentOS Stream:

    # yum install -y centos-release-openstack-ussuri.noarch
  3. Install the Python brick package:

    # yum install -y python3-os-brick
  4. Restart the VDSM on the host to save the new configuration:

    # systemctl restart vdsmd
Using Cinderlib with a ceph driver

If you are using Cinderlib together with a ceph driver:

  1. Enable the following repositories on Red Hat Enterprise Linux:

    # subscription-manager repos --enable=rhceph-4-osd-for-rhel-8-x86_64-rpms \
                                              --enable=rhceph-4-mon-for-rhel-8-x86_64-rpms \
                                              --enable=rhceph-4-tools-for-rhel-8-x86_64-rpms
  2. Enable the centos-release-ceph-nautilus repositories on CentOS Stream:

    # yum install -y centos-release-ceph-nautilus.noarch
  3. Run the following command on the Engine and on the hosts:

    # yum install -y ceph-common

Appendix C: Removing the standalone oVirt Engine

The engine-cleanup command removes all components of the oVirt Engine and automatically backs up the following:

  • the Grafana database, in /var/lib/grafana/

  • the Engine database in /var/lib/ovirt-engine/backups/

  • a compressed archive of the PKI keys and configuration in /var/lib/ovirt-engine/backups/

Backup file names include the date and time.

You should use this procedure only on a standalone installation of the oVirt Engine.

Procedure
  1. Run the following command on the Engine machine:

    # engine-cleanup
  2. The Engine service must be stopped before proceeding. You are prompted to confirm. Enter OK to proceed:

    During execution engine service will be stopped (OK, Cancel) [OK]:
  3. You are prompted to confirm that you want to remove all Engine components. Enter OK to remove all components, or Cancel to exit engine-cleanup:

    All the installed ovirt components are about to be removed, data will be lost (OK, Cancel) [Cancel]: OK

    engine-cleanup details the components that are removed, and the location of backup files.

  4. Remove the oVirt packages:

    # dnf remove ovirt-engine* vdsm-bootstrap

Appendix D: Preventing kernel modules from loading automatically

You can prevent a kernel module from being loaded automatically, whether the module is loaded directly, loaded as a dependency from another module, or during the boot process.

Procedure
  1. The module name must be added to a configuration file for the modprobe utility. This file must reside in the configuration directory /etc/modprobe.d.

    For more information on this configuration directory, see the man page modprobe.d.

  2. Ensure the module is not configured to get loaded in any of the following:

    • /etc/modprobe.conf

    • /etc/modprobe.d/*

    • /etc/rc.modules

    • /etc/sysconfig/modules/*

    # modprobe --showconfig <_configuration_file_name_>
  3. If the module appears in the output, ensure it is ignored and not loaded:

    # modprobe --ignore-install <_module_name_>
  4. Unload the module from the running system, if it is loaded:

    # modprobe -r <_module_name_>
  5. Prevent the module from being loaded directly by adding the blacklist line to a configuration file specific to the system - for example /etc/modprobe.d/local-dontload.conf:

    # echo "blacklist <_module_name_> >> /etc/modprobe.d/local-dontload.conf

    This step does not prevent a module from loading if it is a required or an optional dependency of another module.

  6. Prevent optional modules from being loading on demand:

    # echo "install <_module_name_>/bin/false" >> /etc/modprobe.d/local-dontload.conf

    If the excluded module is required for other hardware, excluding it might cause unexpected side effects.

  7. Make a backup copy of your initramfs:

    # cp /boot/initramfs-$(uname -r).img /boot/initramfs-$(uname -r).img.$(date +%m-%d-%H%M%S).bak
  8. If the kernel module is part of the initramfs, rebuild your initial ramdisk image, omitting the module:

    # dracut --omit-drivers <_module_name_> -f
  9. Get the current kernel command line parameters:

    # grub2-editenv - list | grep kernelopts
  10. Append <_module_name_>.blacklist=1 rd.driver.blacklist=<_module_name_> to the generated output:

    # grub2-editenv - set kernelopts="<> <_module_name_>.blacklist=1 rd.driver.blacklist=<_module_name_>"

    For example:

    # grub2-editenv - set kernelopts="root=/dev/mapper/rhel_example-root ro crashkernel=auto resume=/dev/mapper/rhel_example-swap rd.lvm.lv=rhel_example/root rd.lvm.lv=rhel_example/swap <_module_name_>.blacklist=1 rd.driver.blacklist=<_module_name_>"
  11. Make a backup copy of the kdump initramfs:

    # cp /boot/initramfs-$(uname -r)kdump.img /boot/initramfs-$(uname -r)kdump.img.$(date +%m-%d-%H%M%S).bak
  12. Append rd.driver.blacklist=<_module_name_> to the KDUMP_COMMANDLINE_APPEND setting in /etc/sysconfig/kdump to omit it from the kdump initramfs:

    # sed -i '/^KDUMP_COMMANDLINE_APPEND=/s/"$/ rd.driver.blacklist=module_name"/' /etc/sysconfig/kdump
  13. Restart the kdump service to pick up the changes to the kdump initrd:

      # kdumpctl restart
  14. Rebuild the kdump initial ramdisk image:

      # mkdumprd -f /boot/initramfs-$(uname -r)kdump.img
  15. Reboot the system.

Removing a module temporarily

You can remove a module temporarily.

Procedure
  1. Run modprobe to remove any currently-loaded module:

    # modprobe -r <module name>
  2. If the module cannot be unloaded, a process or another module might still be using the module. If so, terminate the process and run the modpole command written above another time to unload the module.